Read sangam tamil literature purananuru onbooks, புறநானூறு, purananooru flip books, ettuthogai nool purananuru ebooks at Purananuru. likes. புறநானூறு என்னும் தொகைநூல் நானூறு பாடல்களைக் கொண்ட புறத்திணை சார்ந்த ஒரு . 22 ஜனவரி Yes there is, not one but quite a few. The most famous of them all is the Purananuru’ (புறநானூறு), another anthology of poems.

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Late legends say that the third Sangam was held on the banks of the sacred Pond of Golden Lotuses in Madurai.

Puthiya Nokkil Purananuru (புதிய நோக்கில் புறநானூறு), Poovai Amuthan | Download on Dailyhunt

It is not known exactly how many authors wrote the poems in Purananuru. Tamil Sangams — The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Some of the authors of the poems, such as Kapilar and Nakkirar, have also written poems that are part of other anthologies.

To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents.

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Unfortunately much of the Tamil literature belonging to the Sangam period has been lost, the literature currently available from this period is perhaps just a fraction of the wealth of material produced during this golden age of Tamil civilization. A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the annotator Parimelazhagar said, The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means.

Those bright, agile, spirited Tatari horses fairly resembled the horses of the sun-god. Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years, the oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. It is named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai, according to Tamil legends, there were three Sangam periods, namely Head Sangam, Middle Sangam and Last Sangam period.

Ilango Adigal, author of the epic Silappatikaram. These are vetchi, when the king provokes war by attacking and stealing the cattle of his enemy; vanchi, when the king invades the enemy territory; uzhingai, when the king lays a siege of the enemy’s fortress; thumbai, when the two armies meet on a battlefield; vaakai, when the king is victorious; paataan, when the poet praises the king on his victory; and kanchi, when the poet sings on the fragility of human life.


Although there have been attempts at dating the poems of Purananuru based on the mention of the Mahabharata war, a more reliable source for the period of these poems is based on the mentions one finds on the foreign trade and presence of Greek and Roman merchants in the port of Musiri poemwhich give us a date of between BCE to CE for the period of these poems.

While Pliny and Ptolemy refer to the Cheras as Calobotras, the Periplus refers to them as the Keprobotras, puranwnuru earliest Sanskrit works which refer to the Cheras and Kerala purananutu probably the Aitreya Aranyaka. Sangam landscape — The Purananurh landscape is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.

The Purananuru does not, however, follow this system. The Sangam literature is thought to have produced in three Sangam academies of each period. So, long may you live, O Land.


Poem was not assigned any classification, for reasons unknown. It is a treatise on kingship: There are different names found from the colophons. Some of the poems are too damaged in the manuscripts to determine their thurais. Just as the akam subjective poems are classified into seven thinais or landscapes based on the mood of the poem, the Tamil prosodical tradition mentioned in the ancient Tamil grammatical treatise Tolkappiyam also classifies puram objective poems into seven thinais based on the subject of the poems.

This was the period when the Tamil country was ruled by the three crowned kings the Cheras, Pandyas and the Cholas, the land was at peace with no major external threats. I will take some of these works at a later time for discussion.


Pirananuru and are lost and some of the poems exist only in fragment. During the period —, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. The Sangam landscape Tamil: Some of the meters in Purananuru are Archaic.

This site uses cookies. The final portion deals with the general scenery of war and the effect of warfare. Everyone is our kin. Other names in use for the Cholas are Killi, Valavan and Sembiyan.

By the early centuries of the Common Era, civil society, the location of the Chera capital is generally assumed to be at modern Karur. Pothuviyal is described in commentaries as a general thinai used for poems that cannot be classified in any other manner but, in the context of Purananuruis used almost exclusively for didactic verse and elegies or laments for dead heroes. This gives an opportunity to the poet, among other topics, to describe in great detail the natural beauty, fertility, and resources of the territory that has to be traversed to reach the palace of the patron.

Based on this one poem, there have been attempts at dating the Purananuru poems to around BCE or older.

The 19 th century Hindi poet Gwal of Mathura employs a different set of natural phenomena to compare with the battlefield: He also successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia, the Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan Dynasty, which ultimately caused their downfall.